Glossary

Adhesive laid

Floor tiling installed by creating a state of adhesion between the mortar and the bearing surface, if necessary by means of a suitable adhesion promoter.

Calibre

The calibre is the fabrication dimension of the tiles.

Diagonal laid

Layout design with the sides of the tile inclined by 45% in relation to the reference axis of the surface.

Direct laid

Installation of the tiling, adhered directly onto the structural bearing surface.

Dry laid

Cement-based mortar laying, which involves applying a thin layer of cement on top of the mortar before the tiles are laid. The subsequent hammering phase, with abundant amounts of water, serves to deliver adequate liquid to the powder.

Durability

Capacity of the tile to maintain its characteristics over time

Expansion joint

Only the thickness of the ceramic tile is of interest. It serves to subdivide external tiling into smaller, approximately square-shaped fields, in order to limit the mechanical stresses related to temperature variations.

Fraction joint

The thickness of the ceramic tile and part of the thickness of the bearing surface is of concern. It divides external tiling into smaller, approximately square-shaped fields.

Grout Line

Space between adjacent tiles

Grouting

Operation that involves filling the joints, as well as filling the applied joints.

Hardness

The word "hardness" refers to abrasion resistance on a scale from 5 (very resistant) to 1 (not very resistant)

Joint

Discontinued grout lines between the edges of the ceramic tiles.

Lapping tile

Ceramic tile, usually unglazed, which undergoes a mechanical surface treatment that involves the controlled removal of the most superficial layer, creating a polished-effect on the surface.

Laying tiles with continuous grout lines

Laying pattern with parallel grout lines running along the length of the other, at both axes of the tile.

Laying with double-buttering

Application of adhesive on both the laying surface and the back of the tiles, in order to ensure that the adhesive layer is compact (full-bed). When combined, adhesive layers should not exceed the recommended maximum thickness. The tiles are laid before the surface of the adhesive dries out and forms a film.

Laying with single buttering

Application of the adhesive on the laying surface only. Generally applied with a smooth trowel in order to obtain a uniform layer then spread with a notched trowel. The tiles are laid before the surface of the adhesive dries out and forms a film.

Mortar laid

Cement-based mortar laying, which involves applying a thin layer of "topping" or grout (a mixture of water and cement) before the tiles are laid.

Parallel laid

Layout design with one side parallel to the reference axis of the surface.

Perimeter joint

The joint must be placed at the perimeter of the tiling, for example in the case of floor tiling where this borders with elevated elements, such as pillars, walls and kerbs.

Porcelain stoneware

Porcelain stoneware tiles are manufactured through the sintering of ceramic clays, feldspar, kaolins and sand. These raw materials are first ground up (transformed into slurry), then finely atomised until they reach a homogeneous finely-milled powder suitable for pressing.

Primer

Fluid material applied in a thin layer. It serves to make the bearing surface suitable for laying and insulates the adhesive from direct contact with the surface, reducing the absorption of the bearing surface and strengthening the laying surface.

Quality grade

The quality grade characterises the supply.

Rectified

Rectifying is a process whereby the edges of the tiles are perfectly squared to create a "natural stone" effect.

Rectified tile

Ceramic tile that has undergone mechanical processing on the sides in order to improve the uniformity of the straightness and squareness.

Sanded tile

Ceramic tile, usually unglazed, which undergoes a mechanical surface treatment that involves the controlled removal of the most superficial layer, creating a polished-effect on the surface.

Structural joint

It must be placed in correspondence with joints present in the structure and must involve the entire combined thickness of the ceramic tile and the bearing surface.

Surface finish

The term "surface finishing" means the working phase of a piece to achieve a certain level of surface coarseness, as well as formal and dimensional tolerances.

Tone

The tone is the colour nuance that characterises a certain batch of tiles.

Unevenness

A discrepancy between the surface levels of two adjacent tiles, separated by a gap or an expansion joint.

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